Glossary of Leather Terms
Altered Leather
Leather that has had the original surface of the skin or hide removed, (usually due to imperfections in the original grain surface), and a new grain embossed into the leather. This is also called corrected grain. Most top-grain leathers have altered or corrected grain.
American Bison
American Bison Leather is stronger than traditional steer hide and is also supple and durable. They showcase marks of a range animal, the natural grain of bison hides is not corrected with artificial embossing or plating.
The name given to the particular transparent dye used to color dyed leather.
Aniline Dyeing
The dyeing process by which transparent dyes penetrate the cell layers throughout the hide, producing deep, vibrant colors that preserve the hide=s natural markings and characteristics.
Aniline Leather
Leather that has been dyed through with aniline dyes. Pure aniline leathers represent approximately 5% of all upholstery leathers produced worldwide.
Antiqued/Distressed Grain
A surface pattern of markings or creases, in which the hollows are given a contrasting color to produce a two-tone effect that emulates the natural signs of aging
(1) The main portion of a hide, obtained by cutting off the two bellies.
(2) Leather made from (1) Bark Tanned Leather vegetable tanned, mainly by means of the tannins contained in the barks of trees.
Base Coat
Color that is applied to a compatible crust color to achieve the final color of a semi-aniline dyed product.
(1) Part of the hide covering the underside and the upper part of the legs of the animal.
(2) Leather made from this part
Belly Grain
The tanned outer (hair or grain) layer split from a belly.
Blue, In The
The state of hides or animals being chrome tanned after they have been removed from the tanning solution. Chromium salts cause the tanned hides to be light blue before they are dyed.
Blue Split
A hide or skin which has been split into two or more layers following the (chrome) tanning process.
An adjective applied to stiff, inflexible leather. This term is not to be confused with boarding, which is the process of softening leather.
Bonded Leather
Reconstituted leather that is leather fibers bonded together with latex.
Brushed Leather
The creation of a velvet-like nap on the grain surface through a process of controlled surface abrasion.
Buffed Leather
Leather from which the top surface of the grain has been removed by an abrasive or bladed
cylinder or, less generally, by hand. In the case of upholstery leather the buffing process
is invariably carried out by machine, though it is sometimes incorrectly described as hand
Buffed Top Grain
The process of sanding or buffing top grain leather to smooth the high spots of imperfection.
The process of more or less removing the grain by abrasion.

Bycast Leather
Leather that is split with a layer of polyurethane applied to the surface and then embossed –
originally made for the shoe industry.
Cattle Hide
The outer covering of a fully grown bovine animal.
Chamois Leather
Very soft, flexible leather made from sheep hides or lambskin; usually tanned with oils.
Chrome Tanned
Leather tanned with chromium salts and/or chromium sulfate for a supple, pliable effect and
to prevent discoloration and loss of shape when exposed to moisture.
Combination Tanned
Leather that receives chrome and vegetable tannage to produce suppleness and body in
the hide.
Leather made from the tight, firm shell portion of horse butts. Cordovan has very fine pores
and a characteristic finish, and is very durable.
Corrected Grain Leather
Leather from which the grain layer has been partially removed by buffing to a depth governed by the condition of the raw material and upon which a new surface has been built by various finishes.
Cow Hide
Hide from a mature female bovine that has produced a calf.
Crock (noun)
The coloring matter that rubs off of poorly dyed leather. Crock (verb) To transfer color of rubbing.
Leather, suede or fabric that has been treated to prevent color from rubbing off. With suede, this term means to treat to prevent shedding or rubbing off of fibers.
Leather which has been tanned but not finished. Such leathers referred to as being in the crust.
Drum Dying
The application of dye stuffs to leather by the immersion of the leather in a drum that is tumbled. This process allows full dye penetration into the fiber.






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